By Edward B. Stuart, Alan J. Brainard, Benjamin Gal-Or
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Technique warmth move principles of Thumb investigates the layout and implementation of commercial warmth exchangers. It offers the historical past had to comprehend and grasp the economic software program programs utilized by expert engineers for layout and research of warmth exchangers. This ebook makes a speciality of the categories of warmth exchangers most generally utilized by undefined, particularly shell-and-tube exchangers (including condensers, reboilers and vaporizers), air-cooled warmth exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) exchangers.
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Another approach is the corresponding-state correlation, which is based on the principle of corresponding states widely used for correlating thermodynamic data. This approach is shown in Fig. 4, where the reduced viscosity jUr = juljUc is plotted versus the reduced temperature Ty = T/Tc and the reduced pressure Py = P/Pc, and shows a global view of the pressure and temperature dependence of viscosity. The viscosity of a gas approaches a low-density limit at about 1 atm pressure, and increases with increasing temperature, whereas the viscosity of a liquid decreases with increasing temperature.
The Prandtl number for gases is near unity, and hence the magnitudes of energy and momentum transfer by diffusion are comparable. For liquid metals, Pr « 1 and thermal diffusion is much larger than momentum diffusion; this is opposite for liquids for which Pr » 1. The units that are commonly used for thermal conductivity and heat transport are given in Table 3. Table 3 Units of quantities related to heat flux. s. 01 W/m K for gases to about 1000 W/m K for pure metals. Some experimental values of the thermal conductivities are given in Table 4.
The analogous equations for the irreversible fluxes of momentum and mass can also be expressed. For example, for the mass transfer an identical equation to Eq. (54) is obtained from the Chemical reactions 51 nonstationary version of the Maxwell-Stefan equation, and for the momentumdiffusion a similar equation is obtained from the Maxwell equation for viscoelastic fluids. The relaxation time for heat transfer is r^ = 10" s for metals, Tq = 10"^ s for gases at normal conditions, and r^ = 10"^^ - 10'^^ s for typical liquids.