By Isabelle M. Germano

A accomplished overview of the state of the art expertise at present on hand for neuronavigation. it is going to give you the reader with the medical functions of this know-how to varied facets of cranial and spinal surgical procedure.

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Three different spatial encoding methods are used. The most important in terms of geometrical distortion is frequency encoding. A linear magnetic field gradient is applied while the MR signal is received. This gradient is commonly referred to as both the frequency-encoding gradient and the readout gradient. The spatial positions of precessing hydrogen protons are encoded by the frequencies of their emissions; the change in frequency is proportional to distance. 5 Inhomogeneity in the static magnetic field causes an error in the frequency at that position and thus results in a spatial error in the frequency-encoding gradient direction.

PgsI 2/28/02 10:42 AM Page 15 Sources of Error in Image Registration for Cranial Image-Guided Neurosurgery Geometrical Distortion in Preoperative Images The medical images we are interested in are threedimensional (3-D) arrays of elements called voxels. Each voxel has an intensity value associated with it that represents the average value of some quantity. In CT, for example, the intensity represents the average x-ray attenuation coefficient over the region covered by the voxel. Spatial sampling (discretization) of the underlying continuous image constitutes a loss of information by partial volume averaging; structural information on the scale of the voxel dimension and smaller is lost.

19 correct voxel dimensions, as part of the MR-to-CT image registration process (though the fact that the system is doing this is often invisible to the user). It is clear that MR images are useful for IGS and can provide accurate target localization. However, as discussed above, there are many causes of geometrical distortion in MR images, and it is prudent to use caution when performing IGS using only an MR image. ” For a variety of logistical and economic reasons, cranial IGS procedures at many institutions are commonly performed using only an MR image, and few sites perform distortion correction procedures.

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