By Valerie Sperling

Is globalization sturdy for democracy? Or has it made our governing associations much less in charge to voters? positioned on the intersection of diplomacy and comparative politics, this e-book explores the consequences of globalization on nationwide governance. lower than what situations do the transnational forces that embrace globalization motivate or discourage political responsibility? one of the transnational forces mentioned within the e-book are the foreign financial Fund, the realm financial institution, multinational firms, the United international locations, deepest army contractors, peacekeepers, the eu courtroom of Human Rights, and a number of other transnational social pursuits. utilizing in-depth case stories of events within which those transnational associations engage with nationwide governments and electorate, Valerie Sperling lines the effect of financial, political, army, judicial, and civic globalization on nation responsibility and investigates the measure to which transnational associations are themselves liable to the folk whose lives they modify. to hear Valerie Sperling's interview with New Hampshire Public Radio, stopover at (Windows clients) (Mac clients) additionally, pay attention her interview with KOPN radio in Columbia, Missouri on dwell audio flow

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Lowering barriers to imports without creating jobs to make up for those inevitably lost when imports drive local businesses in some sectors to bankruptcy would only reduce economic growth. ”13 Former World Bank economist Robert Wade critiqued the Bank’s use of change in the ratio of trade to GDP as the indicator for ­globalization, arguing that instead the appropriate variable should be the level of a state’s integration. The Bank’s method places China and India in the “globalizers” category, skewing the results, because both China and India increased their trade-to-GDP ratio not by using “liberal trade and investment policies,” but by applying protectionism.

7 See ibid. Economic Globalization 23 I then explore the accountability of the IMF and the World Bank as ­institutions, as well as their negative and positive effects on state accountability. Similar issues are then more briefly discussed regarding the World Trade Organization (WTO), multinational corporations (MNCs), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Finally, I consider various transborder responses to economic globalization, aimed at securing accountability for the citizens of an increasingly borderless world economy.

62 James Vreeland, The IMF and Economic Development (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 2. 63 William Easterly, “IMF and World Bank Structural Adjustment Programs and Poverty,” World Bank, 2001. ”65 IMF programs not only have a negative impact on economic growth, but they also increase income inequality. 66 Put differently, working-class incomes tend to decline under IMF agreements. ”67 Why might IMF loans and the conditions associated with them decrease economic growth and exacerbate the gap between rich and poor in a given country?

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