By John Holm
This textbook is a transparent and concise advent to the learn of ways new languages come into being. beginning with an outline of the field's easy techniques, it surveys the recent languages that constructed a result of eu enlargement to the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. lengthy misunderstood as "bad" models of ecu languages, this present day such kinds as Jamaican Creole English, Haitian Creole French and New Guinea Pidgin are famous as special languages of their personal correct.
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I. So hat vor allem Kuniholm (1979) deutlich herausarbeiten konnen, dass der Kalte Krieg, anders als oft behauptet, nicht mit der Auseinandersetzung um europaische, sondern um nahostliche Gebiete begann. 2. In gewisser Weise wurde ich hier Nolte allerdings vorsichtig widersprechen, denn Elemente eines Kalten Krieges im Sinne der weitestgehenden Definition lassen sich z.
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This period also brought the ﬁrst longer descriptions of two English-based creoles: a 68-page Kurzgefasste Neger-Englische Grammatik on Sranan (Anonymous 1854; by H. R. Wullschlägel according to Schuchardt (1980:102)) and substantial dictionaries of the same language (Focke 1855 and Wullschlägel 1856), as well as a study of Jamaican Creole (Russell 1868), the ﬁrst description of any West Indian variety of Creole English. This period also brought the ﬁrst dictionary of Papiamentu (van Ewijk 1875), which – like the Sranan dictionaries – was needed for quite practical reasons by Dutch speakers.
The more general statements that Van Name made about the origin of the creoles (pp. 123–6) are few but provocative, frequently touching on issues that are still being debated. It is clear that he understood creolization to have been preceded by pidginization: ‘The language spoken by the ﬁrst generation of blacks was a broken French or Spanish, as the case might be, which, in the course of time, developed into a well deﬁned Creole’ (p. 124). Gilbert (1986a:17) has asserted that the ‘distinction between pidgins and creoles [was] proposed by Robert Hall in 1966’, but it should be borne in mind that the ﬁrst attested English use of the word pigeon in the sense of ‘pidgin’ was in 1859, not long before Van Name’s article.
Such speakers were apparently more willing to deal with the creoles as autonomous systems, and their representation of creole sounds was usually less obscured by the orthography of the lexical source language. The earliest known recordings of a North American pidgin are also from this period. Samples of Delaware Jargon were collected by a Swede, Campanius Holm, in New Sweden in the 1640s, and the Englishman William Penn published some phrases in 1683 (Thomason 1980). 3 The eighteenth century During the eighteenth century the Caribbean creoles came to be recognized as varieties that were clearly distinguishable from their European lexical source languages, at least on a practical level by the Europeans who came into regular contact with them.