By Dorothy Buck and Erica Flapan, Dorothy Buck, Erica Flapan

Over the last 20-30 years, knot conception has rekindled its ancient ties with biology, chemistry, and physics as a way of constructing extra subtle descriptions of the entanglements and houses of usual phenomena--from strings to natural compounds to DNA. This quantity is predicated at the 2008 AMS brief path, functions of Knot idea. the purpose of the fast direction and this quantity, whereas no longer protecting all elements of utilized knot idea, is to supply the reader with a mathematical appetizer, as a way to stimulate the mathematical urge for food for additional learn of this interesting box. No past wisdom of topology, biology, chemistry, or physics is thought. particularly, the 1st 3 chapters of this quantity introduce the reader to knot thought (by Colin Adams), topological chirality and molecular symmetry (by Erica Flapan), and DNA topology (by Dorothy Buck). the second one half this quantity is targeted on 3 specific purposes of knot conception. Louis Kauffman discusses functions of knot idea to physics, Nadrian Seeman discusses how topology is utilized in DNA nanotechnology, and Jonathan Simon discusses the statistical and vigorous houses of knots and their relation to molecular biology.

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In general this could mean finding out details of the language as described by linguists, anthropologists, or historians. It may be worthwhile to find a native speaker of the language, with a translator if necessary. In the case of Yoruba numeration, we are fortunate that Helen Verran’s article (2000) is quite detailed in its descriptions. So, let’s make use of her article and look closer at the Yoruba numeration system. Starting with the expression for twelve, méjìlàá, we see the expression méjì for two, but now we must learn what làá means.

In this way, there are cultural or personal emphases. 7╅ Describe the cultural aspects of the right triangle property, more commonly known as the Pythagorean Theorem. The property expresses the fact that the square of the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides, or as you were probably required to memorize once upon a time: a2╯+╯b2╯=╯c2 (where c represents the length of the hypotenuse, while a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides).

Yours are tinted yellow and the other person’s are tinted green. If each of you looks around a room and describes the colors of various objects, then, of course, each person will have a different perception of the colors of the objects. Now, if you can imagine wearing the tinted eyeglasses everyday for 10 years, your perceptions of colors would eventually be quite strong, and were you to then replace the yellow tinted eyeglasses with the green ones, many colors would seem strange to you. The long-term subtle effects of interpreting things in a particular way is what we seek to understand in this section.

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